NH3 I & Boiler I Boot Camp Competencies

GCAP’s Ammonia Operator I & Boiler I Competencies 

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Prerequisite: Industrial Ammonia and Boiler Experience

All of this material is covered or introduced to the
student at our seminar. Student should have all material studied
and understood before starting the next Technician Level.
This selection of material will allow success in companies
training structure and it follows the new IIAR Task Force Guideline.

Understanding Industrial Refrigeration from the Inside Out

June 2, 2014 GCAP revealed their new Ammonia Operator I Book titled “Understanding Industrial Refrigeration from the Inside Out“.  Authors Randy Williams, and Jeremy Williams

This is a 15 Chapter text of what an operator/technician needs to knows learning how to the see the refrigeration from the inside out.  The book has been copyrighted, and filed with the Library of Congress for a specific ISBN number.  If you have taken GCAP PSM/RMP course and seen the quality of that book, this will be of equal.  For a full detailed outline of the book Click Here.

  • Chapter 1: Getting Started

  • Chapter 2: Process Safety Management

  • Chapter 3: What You Need To Know About Ammonia

  • Chapter 4: Basic Electricity

  • Chapter 5: Foundation

  • Chapter 6: Heat Transfer

  • Chapter 7: Seeing Refrigeration From The Inside Out

  • Chapter 8: Four Steps Of Refrigeration

  • Chapter 9: Liquid Feeds

  • Chapter 10: Compressor Applications

  • Chapter 11: Condensers

  • Chapter 12: Different Systems

  • Chapter 13: Practice Exam

  • Chapter 14: Common Acronyms and Definitions

  • Chapter 15: Supplement Information

 

Understanding Industrial Refrigeration from the Inside Out

 

All of this material is covered or introduced to the
student at our seminar. Student should have all material studied
and understood before starting the next Technician Level.
This selection of material will allow success in companies
training structure and it follows the new IIAR Task Force Guideline.

Ammonia Refrigeration Basics Ammonia Characteristics

Topics:

Ammonia sources, uses, and chemical characteristics; Environmental, hazardous material concerns; Temperature-pressure relationships; Materials compatibility; MSDS criteria; Safety

Learning Objectives:

  • Bhopal India Chemical Accident that led to Process Safety Management and Risk Management Programs.

  • OSHA Regulations

  • EPA Regulations

  • RAGAGEP: Recognized and Generally Accepted Good Engineering Practices.

  • IIAR Ammonia Refrigeration Library Awareness.

  • Employee Participation within a PSM/RMP program

  • Process Safety Information Awareness, Process Hazard Analysis Awareness, Standard Operating Procedures Awareness, Mechanical Integrity Awareness, Training Awareness, Management of Change Awareness, Pre-Startup Safety Review Awareness, Emergency Planning Awareness, Contractors Awareness, Hot Work Awareness, Trade Secret Awareness, Incident Investigation Awareness, Compliance Audit Awareness.

  • Requirements of 7 Operating procedures Awareness

    • Initials Startup

    • Normal Operations

    • Temporary Operations

    • Emergency shutdown, including the conditions under which emergency shutdown is required, and the assignment of shutdown responsibility to qualified operators to ensure emergency shutdown is executed in a safe and timely manner

    • Emergency Operations

    • Normal Shutdown

    • Startup following a turnaround, or after an emergency shutdown

  • Responsibilities under PSM/RMP Regulations Awareness

  • Name common uses of ammonia and describe benefits of ammonia refrigerant in terms of ozone depletion and global warming potentials (ODP and GWP).

  • Describe the properties of ammonia and explain how they affect the use of ammonia as a refrigerant.

  • Discuss the toxicity and flammability of ammonia and its classification as a hazardous material.

  • PPE Requirements, PEL, IDLH, Ammonia Sensors, DOT 1005, Fire Diamond, LEL, UEL, B2 Classification, Minimum rinse, Four Primary Injuries, Absorption Rate to Water, Expansion Rate at atmosphere

  • Discuss important features of ammonia saturation curves, reactions with metals, and MSDS criteria.

  • Name two standards governing ammonia refrigeration systems and describe the four main ammonia safety concerns, steps for their prevention, and first aid treatment in the event of exposure.

  • % to PPM conversions

  • Requirements of 100# releases

  • Minimum Protective Equipment

  • Determining to Point of Refrigerant Leaks

    • Sulfur Stick Applications

    • PH Paper Applications

    • Soap and Water Applications

Foundation Concepts

  •  Square feet Calculations / Cubic Feet Calculations

  • Rates: CFM, GPM, Tonnage

  • Measuring Pressure: Formula, PSIG, PSIA, “hg

  • Converting Pressure

  • Altitude Corrections for Pressure

  • Principles of Heat Transfer: Radiation, Conduction, Convection

  • BTU

  • Celsius and Fahrenheit Measurements and Conversions

  • Sensible Heat / Latent Heat

  • Specific Heat

  • Conditions of a Refrigerant: Subcooled, Saturated, Superheated

  • First Law of Thermodynamics / Second Law of Thermodynamics

  • Latent Heat (BTU Content) of Ammonia and Water

  • Compression Ratios and Limitations

  • Block Flows, Process Flows, and P&ID Awareness

  • Hydrostatic Expansion

  • Log Books / Round Sheets

  • Valve Positions Importance

  • Pressure Drop / Line Resistance

  • Oil Draining Concepts and Dangers of Oil Draining

  • Tracking Oil

  • Theoretical Discharge Temperatures

  • Introduction to CIRO Trouble Shooting Screens

Single-Stage Ammonia Systems  

Topics:

Positive-displacement systems; Refrigeration loads; Primary, secondary refrigeration system components; Components in parallel; Superheat; Single-stage pressure-enthalpy diagram

Learning Objectives:

  • Briefly compare absorption and mechanical compression systems, compare dynamic and positive-displacement compressors, and name those generally used in industrial ammonia refrigeration systems.

  • Compressors, Evaporators, Condensers, and Metering Devices

  • Explain how a positive-displacement compressor increases the ammonia vapor pressure.

  • Define British thermal unit (Btu), specific heat, sensible heat, latent heat, and tons of refrigeration.

  • Name four primary components in single-stage ammonia refrigeration systems and describe their functions.

  • Describe the functions of the oil separator, high-pressure liquid receiver, king valve, and suction accumulator in single-stage ammonia refrigeration systems.

  • Define superheat,

  • Insulation from High to Low side

  • CPR Systems

  • GCAP’s Airplane Analogy for Trouble Shooting

 Two-Stage Ammonia Systems

Topics:

Compression ratio; Compressor capacity; Two-stage system division, Booster desuperheater, intercooler; Two-stage system components, performance; Complex two-stage systems

Learning Objectives:

  • Define compression ratio and explain its importance in single-stage and two-stage industrial ammonia refrigeration systems.

  • Explain why flash gas removal, booster discharge-vapor desuperheating, and interstage liquid cooling are desirable in the two-stage system.

  • Name the primary and secondary components of a two-stage refrigeration system and describe component functions.

  • Explain why a two-stage system requires less overall power than a single-stage system.

  • Swing Machines

 Suction Accumulators and Intercoolers

Topics:

Need for suction accumulators; Accumulator design features; Liquid/vapor separation; Intercoolers; Shell-and-coil vs flash intercoolers; Alternate intercoolers

Learning Objectives:

  • Explain why suction accumulators are needed and describe the damage that can result from liquid entering the compressor.

  • Discuss the purposes and reasoning behind the design features, including the boil-out coil, of suction accumulators.

  • Describe the various ammonia refrigerant liquid/vapor separation criteria.

  • Explain how the intercooler deals with flash gas and desuperheats the booster discharge.

  • Describe basic differences between a flash intercooler and a shell-and-coil intercooler.

  • Describe typical configurations for alternate intercoolers provided with internally compounded compressors.

Evaporator Engineered Feeds

Topics:

Liquid overfeed, recirculation systems; Recirculation system advantages and disadvantages; Recirculation vessel design; Pumper drum system; Controlled pressure receiver system

Learning Objectives at the end of GCAP’s program is to understand the below information.

  • Describe the various functions performed within the recirculation vessel.

  • Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of recirculation systems.

  • Describe design features of horizontal and vertical recirculation vessels.

  • Discuss the surge-volume requirements of a recirculation system and reasons for high-level alarm/cutout controls on the recirculation vessel.

  • Describe the features and drawbacks of various kinds of liquid-refrigerant pumps.

  • Describe the operation of pumper drum (gas-pressure) recirculation systems and controlled pressure receiver (CPR) recirculation systems.

Covers gravity feed, overfeed, dump trap, CPR, and DX supply systems. Describes evaporator and evaporative condenser design, selection, and operation. Discusses various defrost systems-hot gas, electric, water, and glycol spray. Examines stop, shutoff, relief, check, solenoid, expansion, pressure-regulating, and float valves.

 Liquid Ammonia Evaporator Supply Methods

Topics:

Gravity feed, liquid overfeed, pumped overfeed, dump trap, controlled pressure receiver – direct expansion, and flooded liquid chiller systems

Learning Objectives:

  • DX: Dry Expansion Evaporators

  • Flooded Evaporators

  • Explain how refrigerant flows in a thermosyphon system and describe the requirements for a surge drum in a gravity feed system.

  • List the benefits of a machine room liquid recirculation unit and benefits compared to direct expansion systems.

  • Describe the various level controls used in a recirculation unit and explain how the liquid refrigerant is pumped from the recirculation unit through the evaporator coils.

  • Describe how a dump trap functions and how it differs from a pumped overfeed system.

  • Discuss the differences between a recirculation unit and a CPR system.

  • Explain how a thermal expansion valve works and why a DX coil must have more heat transfer surface than an overfeed coil.

  • Describe the liquid feed and operation of flooded ammonia shell-and-tube fluid coolers.

Evaporators

Topics:

Evaporator operation and heat transfer principles; Tube design; Chillers; Air coils; Freezers; Ice makers; Specialty evaporators

Learning Objectives:

  • Discuss basic details of evaporator operation, including the use of secondary coolant.

  • List basic principles affecting evaporator heat transfer ability in DX and liquid overfeed systems.

  • Discuss the reasons for coil fins and enhanced tube designs.

  • Describe common DX and flooded liquid chillers.

  • Discuss the construction and operation of evaporators used as air coils (coolers), including the benefits of penthouse installation.

  • Describe the operation of various common kinds of freezers and ice makers.

  • Explain how subcoolers, intercoolers, and thermosyphon oil coolers function as evaporators.

Reciprocating Compressors

Topics:

Begins with the coverage of reciprocating compressors-their design, lubrication, efficiency, and application. Covers rotary vane compressor operation and limitations. Details screw compressors and the operation of related drive, lubrication, capacity control, and safety systems. Discusses oils and the importance of system lubrication.

Features of industrial ammonia reciprocating compressors; Capacity control; Lubrication; Efficiency; Application data; Compound compressors

Learning Objectives:

  • Briefly describe the evolution of ammonia reciprocating compressors.

  • Describe typical design features of today’s reciprocating compressors.

  • Explain how capacity control and proper lubrication are achieved in ammonia reciprocating compressors.

  • Explain how to use volumetric and adiabatic efficiency data and the performance factor in sizing or selecting compressors for an application.

  • Describe the function and basic design requirements of internally compounded reciprocating compressors.

 Sliding-Vane Rotary Booster Compressors –

Topics:

Rotary vane compressor design and operation; Fixed volume ratio; Applicability; Limitations; Capacity control

Learning Objectives:

  • Describe the basic operation of sliding-vane rotary booster compressors.

  • Explain the principle of fixed volume ratio compressors.

  • Describe typical rotary compressor design features.

  • Explain why sliding-vane rotary compressors have been replaced by screw compressors.

  • Discuss the reasons for rotary vane compressor speed limitations and the causes and effects of blade wear.

  • Describe how capacity control is achieved in rotary compressors.

 Oil-Flooded Screw Compressors

Topics:

Oil-flooded screw compressor operation; Fixed volume ratio; Capacity control in fixed – variable compressors; Efficiency; Compound compressors; Application criteria

Learning Objectives:

  • Discuss the developments that led to the use and acceptance of the oil-flooded screw compressor in industrial refrigeration.

  • Describe typical design features of single-screw and twin helical screw compressors.

  • Explain how the compression system works within screw compressors.

  • Compare fixed and variable volume machines and their applications.

  • Explain how the capacity-control slide valve and variable Vi slide stop function.

  • Describe the general range of application for screw compressors.

Screw Compressor Units

Topics:

Screw compressor systems; Drive systems; Lubrication, refrigerant/oil separation – oil cooling, economizer/side load, capacity control, microprocessor control, and safety systems

Learning Objectives:

  • Explain why screw compressors are provided as units and describe the main systems that make up the screw compressor unit.

  • Explain why a vertical or horizontal oil separator may be preferred and explain why check valves are used on the unit inlet and outlet connections.

  • Discuss drive methods and oil distribution methods used on screw compressors and describe tasks provided by the lubricant within the compressor.

  • Explain how the refrigerant vapor/oil separation system operates and list the methods and benefits of oil cooling in screw compressor units.

  • Discuss the beneficial uses of the side port and the operation of the screw compressor capacity reduction slide valve control system.

  • Name the codes and other criteria with which ammonia refrigeration systems must comply to establish and maintain a safe work environment.

  • Thermosyphon oil cooling, Liquid Injection oil cooling, and water/glycol cooling

Ammonia Systems Lubrication/Oil Management

Topics:

Need for lubrication; Miscibility; Viscosity; Lubricants and oils; Lubricant selection – handling and management; Separators; Low-side oil recovery

Learning Objectives:

  • Discuss the purposes of lubricants in ammonia systems.

  • Define the terms used to describe and specify lubricants and oils and discuss the importance of the miscibility and viscosity relationships between lubricants and ammonia.

  • Describe the proper methods for handling lubricants.

  • Explain how oil is separated from the refrigerant vapor within the screw compressor system.

  • Function of Oil Separator

  • Describe the IIAR-approved method for removing oil from the system low-side oil pots.

  • Name lubricants recommended for use with ammonia systems and explain the importance of using only specified lubrication products.

 Air Unit Defrost Systems

Topics:

Reasons for defrost; Hot gas, soft hot gas, electric, water, continuous glycol spray – and room air defrost; Defrost cycle initiation and termination

Learning Objectives:

  • Explain why ice and frost form on a coil and discuss the problems resulting from this formation.

  • Describe the basic process of defrosting by means of hot gas from the compressor discharge.

  • Explain how the soft hot gas defrost system protects large industrial coils.

  • Describe common defrost methods that do not use hot gas-electric, water, continuous glycol spray, and room air.

  • Describe preset timer defrost methods.

 Condensers

Topics:

Evaporative condenser basics and design features; Condenser selection; Condenser location; Refrigerant piping; Winter operation and capacity control; Water treatment

Learning Objectives:

  • Describe the basic differences between air-cooled, water-cooled, and evaporative condensers and discuss the main operating features of each.

  • Discuss the benefits of the evaporative condenser and explain why it has the lowest condensing temperature.

  • Describe the design components of an evaporative condenser and explain how they work together to provide cooling.

  • Discuss both the process of condenser selection and good and bad practices in locating condensers.

  • Describe proper piping and equalization practices for both single and multiple condenser installations.

  • Explain the need for condenser winterization and capacity control and discuss proper water treatment to control mineral and bacterial content.

Control Valves and Switches

Topics:

Safety relief, stop and shutoff, check, solenoid, hand expansion, pressure regulating, and float valves; Float valve switches and controllers

Learning Objectives:

  • Discuss the relief valve safety requirements as specified by the ASHRAE 15 code.

  • Explain why dual relief valves are used, describe proper positioning of the three-way diverting valve, and explain how to calculate relief valve flow capacity.

  • Describe the functioning of the various stop valves used on ammonia systems and explain why angle valves are preferred.

  • Describe the various kinds of check valves and solenoid valve uses in automatic control on ammonia refrigeration systems.

  • Describe the operation and functions of the hand expansion valve and describe typical pressure regulating valve applications and methods by which the valve is controlled.

  • Discuss system high-side and low-side float valve uses and describe the operation of mechanical float switches.

  • Discuss the benefits of the newer electronic level controllers in the automatic control of liquid levels, safety alarms, and system shutdown procedures

Explains the effects of noncondensables on an ammonia system and the importance of their removal. Covers a wide range of piping considerations-sizing, flow rate, pressure drop, and others. Concludes with a thorough coverage of safety codes and programs, including ANSI/ASHRAE, IIAR, OSHA, and EPA information.

Purging Air and Noncondensables

Topics:

Materials to be purged; Effects of noncondensables; Power penalty; Purge point locations; Automatic purging; Economics of purging

Learning Objectives:

  • List common noncondensable vapors and discuss their effects in a refrigeration system.

  • Discuss the power penalty resulting from noncondensable gases in terms of compression and loss of refrigeration capacity.

  • Explain how to determine the presence of noncondensables.

  • Explain how to minimize the entrance of noncondensables and describe common entry points.

  • Compare the features and operation of manual and automatic purging equipment and name the best connection points for the purge unit.

  • Discuss the economic benefits of the purge unit in terms of typical payback time

  • Manual Purging and Automatic Purging

All the material above including lectures, which the students receives with the course, and hands on demonstrationsin our hands on Lab, should help quick start the student’s career in the ammonia industry. No other school offers this amount of information for the first course. We feel that you cannot build an operator in a week, it takes years and we want to get the material in their hands early so a complete training package so on the job training will be affective. Then this will prepare them to grow into an Industrial Refrigeration Technician.  With the standard we follow, students will be successful.  

Videos shown or given to student during week include:

  • GCAP’s PSM/RMP Awareness

  • Anhydrous Ammonia Incidents

  • Anhydrous Ammonia Training Tour Videos

  • IIAR’s Ammonia Refrigeration Systems

  • IIAR’s Evaporators

  • IIAR’s Compressors

  • IIAR’s Condensers

  • Plus many other GCAP in-house demonstration videos

Boiler Tech 1 Book:

Boiler tech 1 book

  • Chapter 1: Steam Boilers
  • Chapter 2: Boiler Systems
  • Chapter 3: Steam System Fittings
  • Chapter 4: Steam System Accessories
  • Chapter 5: Feedwater Systems
  • Chapter 6: Water Treatment
  • Chapter 7: Combustion Equipment
  • Chapter 8: Fuels and Combustion
  • Chapter 9: Combustion and Boiler Controls
  • Chapter 10: Draft Systems
  • Chapter 11:Instrumentation and Control Systems
  • Chapter 12: Steam Boiler Operation
  • Chapter 13: Licensing
    Exams 1-6

Boiler Operator 1 uses High Pressure Boilers Fifth Edition written by Frederick M. Steingress, Harlod J. Frost, and Daryl R. Walker.  as the written material for the class subjects.

Course Syllabus:

Primary Areas of Focus for Boiler Level One

 Boilers – steam cycle, fuel/energy source, utility boilers, industrial boilers, co-generation

1.           Boilers – Knowledge in the operation, maintenance, repair, economics of basic systems including the use of steam, the energy source to produce the steam, the distinction between industrial and utility boilers, and a good concept of how steam is generated from a heat source other than combustion within a boiler.

a.   Steam Cycle – The Boiler Operator should know the Rankine Cycle, the effects of reheat cycles and regenerative feed water heating.

b.    Fuel/Energy Source –The Boiler Operator should know the types of fossil fuels used in a boiler, coal, oil, gas as well as the heat derived from nuclear fuel such as uranium.

c.    Utility Boilers – The Boiler Operator should know that utility boilers are those plants that generally supply electricity to most of the United States .  These boilers are most often fired with coal but are also fired with fuel oil and gas.  Utility boilers have reheat cycles, and require very elaborate water treatment systems.

d.   Industrial Boilers –The Boiler Operator should know industrial boilers are most often used for process steam, such as heating, driving operating turbines, for fans or pumps, and other process work.

e.    Cogeneration –The Boiler Operator should know that cogeneration is a system in which fuel is used to produce energy and the heat from the fuel is then directed to be used by a boiler to conserve energy and achieve the maximum efficiency from the heat generated.

Boiler Design/Application, heat transfer, steam properties, control devices, furnace design, economic devices, firing equipment, and draft.

2.           Boiler Design/Application – The boiler operator should know: how the application affects the design, size, and type of boiler to be used.  Also, the types of heat transfer, how they differ, and where each takes place within the furnace.  The boiler operator must have an understanding of the relationship between steam pressure and temperature and how to control their parameters.  The boiler operator must have knowledge of the rules for construction of boilers, including material properties, accessories supplied, and heat source.  Knowledge is needed for plants that span the last fifty year or more.

a.   Boiler design/application – The boiler operator should know fire tube, vertical (submerged and nonsubmerged), horizontal, water tube, and cast iron type boiler construction.  The boiler operator should be able to describe the differences between package and site-erected boilers.  The boiler operator should be able to describe the differences between package and site-erected boilers.  The boiler operator must know the difference between a longitudinal weld joint and circumferential weld joint.  The operator should be able to describe the flow of gases through each type of boiler.

b.    Heat Transfer – The boiler operator must understand conduction, convection and radiation heat transfer.  The boiler operator should be able to describe the various types of fluid flow and how they affect heat transfer.  The density of steam versus boiler pressure, and the meaning of saturation temperature must be understood.

c.    Steam, properties and Control Devices – The boiler operator should know location and purpose of a dry pipe, cyclone steam separators, steam scrubber, or baffles.  The boiler operator should know the function, types, location, operation, start up, and efficiency of superheaters.  Have an understanding of the affects of carryover and how it is prevented, steam quality, and desuperheaters or attemperators.

d.    Furnace Design – The boiler operator should understand the reason(s) for having ash re-injection, furnace baffles, and water walls (water cooled furnace).  The boiler operator should have knowledge of soot blower operation, types and location. Refractory walls, slag, erosion and spalling, purpose of a water screen, flame impingement, clinkers, clinker crinders are topics with which the boiler operator should be familiar.

e.   Economic Devices – The boiler operator should know the construction location, types, and purpose of an economizer, air-preheaters, and thermocouples.

f.    Firing Equipment – The boiler operator should understand and be able to operate pulverized firing, chain grate firing, spreader stoker firing, and underfeed stoker firing.

g.   Draft – The boiler operator should understand balanced draft units, pressurized draft unit, primary air, secondary air, tertiary air.

Boilers – Construction; materials, support, types of stress, openings and fittings, heating surface and capacity.

3.           Boilers Construction – The boiler operator must be aware of the materials, design, and limits of those materials used in the equipment in their charge.  Stress the access for cleaning, inspection, and repairs, as well as the appliances attached to the boiler to ensure it does not exceed the limits of its design.  In addition, the operator must know the abilities and limits of the unit being operated to prevent failures of equipment that may result in injury or death.

a.   Materials – The boiler operator must have knowledge and understand limitations of materials used in boiler construction.  The boiler operator should have knowledge of proper operating procedure, which will help to prevent creep or graphitization.  Being able to specify the nondestructive examination method to be used to inspect the boiler is also part of the knowledge needed by the boiler operator.

b.   Openings and Fittings – The boiler operator should know the requirement for the minimum size of a manhole or hand hole opening.  In addition, he must able to list the purpose of other openings in the drum, and be able to identify the process of rolling tubes into a boiler.

c.    Heating Surface and Capacity – The boiler operator should know the definition of heating surface, and how twelve square feet of heating surface is related to Ohio law concerning licensed operators and engineers.  The operator must be able to convert evaporation rate to horsepower.

Combustion-fuels, control of the rate of combustion.

4.           Combustion – The boiler operator must be proficient in the techniques used to control fuel and air to a furnace, thus regulating the release of heat to the boiler.

a.   Fuels and their equipment – The boiler operator should know the combustion process, temperature required for combustion, atomization, and absolute pressure.

b.   Control of the rate of Combustion – The boiler operator should know how to control the supply air (oxygen) part of combustion, the condition or degree under which combustion takes place, flue gas analysis methods, the amount of air required to burn a pound of fuel, and tempering of fuel.

Combustion Equipment-specific types of equipment for each type of fuel including safety devices, monitoring and adjusting fuel burning equipment, and mechanical and draft.

5.           Combustion Equipment – The boiler operator must be familiar with the devices used to supply fuel to the furnace.  This includes using solid, gaseous, or liquid fuels; the protective devices, types of controls used, and understand the type or types of draft required for each fuel including units that operate on multiple fuels.

a.   Combustion Equipment – The boiler operator should know operation and maintenance of coal stokers, such as chain grate, spreader underfeed, and pulverize.  Must know oil fired burners, mechanical or pressure type, and the advantages and disadvantages of each.  In addition, operation and maintenance of gas-fired burners whether the supply is natural or man made.  The operator must be able to describe the method of disposing of ash and products of combustion, and know the physical requirements of the fuel system.

b.   Safety Devices – The boiler operator must be able to explain how to properly fire a boiler.  The boiler operator must be able to explain the importance of purging the furnace and of heating or pressurizing the fuel.  The operator must know what devices are to be installed in the fuel system to protect it.

c.   Monitoring the furnace – The boiler operator must be able to explain what can happen if the burner flame is not controlled properly.

d.    Draft – The boiler operator shall see to it that induced, over fire, and forced draft fans are operational, and must determine if a balanced draft on positive pressure furnace is distributing heat and gases as required to prevent failure in the furnace.

Boiler Indicators and Devices – to provide for operation, prevent over-pressure, determine water level, valves, piping blow down systems, and measuring devices.

6.          Boiler Indicators and Devices – The boiler operator must have knowledge of operation and maintenance relating to the devices that are provided to assist in determining and maintaining water level, steam pressure, isolating the boiler, and preventing over pressure of the boiler.  The devices shall be in the proper location, using recommended code installation practices.

a.   Safety Devices – the boiler operator shall know the operation, maintenance, location, purpose, and proper installation of a boiler water column, safety valve, blow down valve, heater/non return valve, steam gauge, fusible plug, and feed water regulator.

b.   Safety Valve – The boiler operator shall be able to properly test the safety valve of the boiler and know the minimum number of valves required for installation.  The boiler operator must know the requirements for; discharge piping, minimum blowback values, and the minimum capacity for safety valves.

c.   Boiler Water Level Devices – The boiler operator will know the proper procedure to determine the water level of the boiler, the location of the water column and the minimum size, strength, and type of pipe and fittings sued.

d.   Valves and their applications – For each appliance, the boiler operator will know the type of valve used in which order is used on feed water, blow down, steam header, water column, and all other connections to the boiler.

e.   Instrumentation – The boiler operator shall know how to use all measuring devices, insure that they are attached properly, and be able to perform test to prove their accuracy. These items may include; steam gauges, draft gages, water gauges, fuel, and temperature gauges.

Boiler Operation-abnormal operations, start up, shut down, efficiency, water supplies, idle boilers, maintenance, repairing, and evaluation of a boilers’ condition

7.           Operation and Maintenance – The boiler operator must show evidence that indicates the comprehension of the theory of the production of steam from boilers, during all phases of operation, maintenance, repairs, and inspection.

a.    Start Up and On-line Operation of Boilers – The boiler operator should understand the sequence of operation that lends up to on-line operation.  This includes any special considerations for new or newly repaired boilers.

b.   Combustion – The boiler operator should be able to monitor, analyze, and regulate the combustion process to operate in the most efficient and safe manner.

c.    Operational Problems – The boiler operator needs to be able to recognize problem areas immediately and control potentially un-safe operation. Abnormal operation, priming and carry over, tube failure, fires, inconsistent draft, and gauge glass breakage are some of the situations that an operator must, at all times, be ready to handle.

d.   Idle Boilers – The boiler operator should be able to care for idle boilers, know how to take a boiler out of service, and know how to place a boiler in wet or dry lay up.

e.   Boiler maintenance – The boiler operator should be able to; perform routine maintenance, schedule maintenance, prepare boilers for internal inspections, and external inspections, or repairs.  To obtain maximum efficiency in operation the boiler needs to be maintained on a regular schedule.

Pumps-type, applications, facts used in selecting, conditions for operating, and maintenance.

8.           Pumps – The boiler operator shall demonstrate knowledge indicating comprehension of the operation, maintenance, start-up and shut down of all types of pumps used throughout a powerhouse.

a.    Pumps- The boiler operator must be able to identify the types of pumps and the varied uses of pumps.  The operator must understand their capabilities and what can be expected of injectors, duplex pumps, power pumps, vacuum pumps, rotary pumps, and centrifugal pumps.

b.   Pump Operation – The boiler operator needs to be able to properly line up and bring pumps on line, regulate pump discharge and understand the performance characteristics of the pump.

c.   Pump Maintenance – The boiler operator needs to know when and how to care for each type of pump, must identify the required routine maintenance, and schedule maintenance, to maintain peak performance of all types of pumps.

Boiler Auxiliary Support Equipment – types and operations of feed water heaters, water system make up, condensate, polished systems, blow down systems, steam traps, separators, lubricator types and devices with their auxiliaries

9.           Boiler Auxiliary Support Equipment – The boiler operator shall demonstrate knowledge that indicates comprehension of the operation, maintenance, start-up and shut down of boiler auxiliary equipment used through out a powerhouse.  These items include pre-heating, water treatment, distribution of steam, return of condensate, and lubrication operations.

a.   Feedwater Heating Equipment – The boiler operator needs to know feed water heaters, closed and open, and deaerators.  The boiler operator must have a thorough understanding of preheating of feedwater, and which components provide these benefits.

b.    Boiler Water Treatment – The boiler operator needs to know water treatment. To maintain peak performance and limit down time, water quality is of great importance to safe operation.  The boiler operator must be able to analyze and chemically treat water for each condition.  The boiler operator must understand the affects of blowing down a boiler.

c.    Piping Systems for Steam and Condensate – The boiler operator needs to know piping systems design, material selection, flanges and fittings are topics with which the operator must be familiar.

d.   Steam Traps – The boiler operator needs to know the various designs and types of steam traps, separators, and strainers.  To gain the most efficiency from the steam, it is dried for use using separators.

e.   Lubrication – The boiler operator must understand classification and uses of lubricants and lubricating devices.  The applicant must know what provides the best protection and reduces friction, and the different methods of application.

Environment Control –types, technology, particulate control, equipment for specific controls, mechanical, bag filter, and precipator.

10.       Environmental Control – The boiler operator shall demonstrate knowledge that indicates comprehension of the operation, maintenance, start-up and shut down of environmental equipment and to comply with environmental responsibilities of the plants operation.

a.   Pollution Controls and Standards – The boiler operator needs to know the types of emissions, how they are monitored, and the operator must be able to differentiate one condition from another, and control the situation accordingly.

b.   Pollution Control Devices – The boiler operator needs to know how particulates are controlled, mechanical collectors, electrostatic precipitators, bag filter houses, how to control pollution by-products or stack gas emissions are topics with which the operator must be familiar.  The applicant needs to identify the different methods available and the principles of operation.

c.    Flue Gas Scrubbers – The boiler operators needs to know how to operat sulfur dioxide scrubber, wet scrubber, and dry scrubber.  In addition to particulate control, the chemical balance as a result of combustion needs to be reduced to acceptable atmospheric standards.

Math formulas

11.       Math Formulas – Math from the text the boiler operator must know the formulas, as there will be no books, notes, and no programmable calculators allowed under NIULPE Engineered test.

a.      The internal design pressure of an existing boiler.

b.      Absolute pressure.

c.      Rate at which tons of coal are being consumed in a chain grate stoker.

d.      Pressure due to head of water.

e.      Tons of coal to develop pounds of steam per hour.

f.        Collection efficiency of an electrostatic precipitator.

g.      Pounds of water to condense one pound of steam.

Laws and Rules

12.        Laws and rules pertaining to the licensing of Stationary Boiler Operators, Boiler Operators and Low Pressure Boiler Operators

a.      Horsepower by heating surface

b.      Licenses renewals

c.      License revocation and expiration

d.      Experience and schooling

e.      Display of license

f.        Requirements of boilers over thirty (30) horsepower by heating surface.

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